Posts in The Environmental indicators Category


Ocean acidification

Currently, the ocean takes up about one quarter of global CO 2 emissions from human activities. The uptake of CO 2 in the sea causes ocean acidification, as the pH of ...


Natura 2000 sites designated under the EU Habitats and Birds Directives

Since the adoption of the Habitats Directive in 1992 and the creation of the Natura 2000 network, the cumulative area of the network has steadily increased in EU Member States. In ...


Natura 2000 sites designated under the EU Habitats and Birds Directives

Since the adoption of the Habitats Directive in 1992 and the creation of the Natura 2000 network, the cumulative area of the network has steadily increased in EU Member States. In ...


Abundance and distribution of selected European species

Long-term monitoring schemes show significant downward trends in common farmland birds and in grassland butterfly population numbers, with no signs of recovery. Between 1990 and 2017, there was an 8 % ...


Imperviousness and imperviousness change in Europe

For the reference year 2015 ,  85 861 km 2   of the total area covered by the  EEA-39 countries were mapped and categorised as ‘sealed surface’ in the Copernicus imperviousness product. ...


Meteorological and hydrological droughts in Europe

Drought is a recurrent feature of the European climate that affects considerable fractions of the European population each year. The frequency and severity of meteorological and hydrological droughts have increased in ...


Vegetation productivity

Vegetation productivity indicates the spatial distribution and change of the vegetation cover – a key characteristic of ecosystem condition.  Vegetation productivity in Europe on average has a regional pattern of increase ...


Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets

The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets are the largest bodies of ice in the world and play an important role in the global climate system. Both ice sheets have been losing ...


Production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances in Europe

A significant reduction in the consumption of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) has been achieved by the EEA-33 countries since 1986. This reduction has largely been driven by the 1987 United Nations Environment ...


Primary energy consumption by fuel in Europe

The EU’s primary energy consumption in 2017 was 9 % lower than in 2005, a trend which will continue in 2018 based on EEA’s preliminary estimates. The share of all non-renewable ...


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